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Design Rules for Quantum Imaging Devices: Experimental Progress Using CMOS Single Photon Detectors
Charbon, Edoardo; Gunther, Neil J.; Boiko, Dmitri L.; Beretta, Giordano B.
Keyword(s): CMOS; detector arrays; interferometer; phase twinning; quantum imaging; SPAD (single photon avalanche diode)
Abstract: We continue our previous program where we introduced a set of quantum-based design rules directed at quantum engineers who design single-photon quantum communications and quantum imaging devices. Here, we report on experimental progress using SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) arrays of our design and fabricated in CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. Emerging high-resolution imaging techniques based on SPAD arrays have proven useful in a variety of disciplines including bio- fluorescence microscopy and 3D vision systems. They have also been particularly successful for intra-chip optical communications implemented entirely in CMOS technology. More importantly for our purposes, a very low dark count allows SPADs to detect rare photon events with a high dynamic range and high signal to noise ratio. Our CMOS SPADs support multi-channel detection of photon arrivals with picosecond accuracy, several million times per second, due to a very short detection cycle. The tiny chip area means they are suitable for highly miniaturized quantum imaging devices and that is how we employ them in this paper. Our quantum path integral analysis of the Young- Afshar-Wheeler interferometer showed that Bohrís complementarity principle was not violated due the previously overlooked effect of photon bifurcation within the lens-a phenomenon consistent with our quantum design rules-which accounts for the loss of which-path information in the presence of interference. In this paper, we report on our progress toward the construction of quantitative design rules as well as some proposed tests for quantum imaging devices using entangled photon sources with our SPAD imager. Notes: Copyright 2006 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Published in Proceedings 6305 of Optics & Photonics: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging IV, San Diego, CA, 13-17 August 2006
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