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Direct Manipulation and Other Lessons

Frohlich, David


Keyword(s): direct manipulation; interfaces; human computer interaction; mixed mode; graphical

Abstract: Direct manipulation refers to an interface design philosophy which originated in the early 1980's and now dominates the creation of modern software packages. In this chapter I update this philosophy in the light of recent studies, theories and interface innovations in this area. The main lesson of these developments is that a manual mode of interaction does not always lead to direct or usable interfaces, and that conversational and mixed mode forms of interaction should be more widely considered as ways of extending the current HCI paradigm.

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