[Gc] Circular references

Hans Boehm Hans.Boehm at hp.com
Thu Mar 6 20:18:04 PST 2008

There is some discussion of Java finalization issues in my JavaOne 
tutorial from a few years back.  The slides are at


There is a more general discussion in my POPL 2003 paper, or the technical 
report version:



On Fri, 29 Feb 2008, Florian Weimer wrote:

> * Bruce Hoult:
>> Mind you, the Java rules are evil and dangerous and misguided and most
>> Java programs using finalizers are as a result very likely to be buggy
>> (even if they seem to work).
> Is there a tutorial/book/whatever on how to do it right (e.g., if you
> want to free native resources in the presence of imperfect exception
> handling, but with potentially hostile code)?  Bonus points if it deals
> with cases like "finalizing A must be delayed until B has been
> finalized" and "explicitly freeing A must implicitly free B first". 8-)
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