Bugs in Black and White: Imaging IC Logic Levels with Voltage Contrast
Voltage contrast imaging allows visual tracking of logical level problems to their source on operating integrated circuits, using a scanning electron microscope. This paper presents an overview of voltage contrast and the methods developed to image the failure of dynamic circuits in the floating-point coprocessor circuitry of the HP PA 7100LC processor chip.
by Jack D. Benzel
Article 13 - apr95a13.pdf
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